7 Types of Stone Crusher and How to Choose the Best?

2021-09-23 | Author: Shibang Group

Rock stone crusher is an indispensable part of crushing, sand making, grinding and other processes. However, there are many types of stone crushers on the market. How to choose suitable and satisfactory products? First of all, you need to know the applicable conditions and advantages and disadvantages of these mainstream devices!

Before understanding the stone crusher, it is necessary for us to have a simple understanding of the crushing method:

The crushing method of the crusher is divided into compression, splitting, breaking, shearing, impact or blow, etc. Generally, multiple action modes are mixed, and there is no single action mode.

Compression crushing: The working face of the crushing machine exerts pressure on the material sandwiched between it, and the material is crushed when the compressive stress on the material reaches the limit of its compressive strength.

Splitting and shearing crushing: The edges of the crushing working surface are wedged into the material to generate tensile stress inside. When the value exceeds the tensile strength limit of the material, the material splits and locally produces powder at the point of contact between the sharp edge and the material.

Bending and breaking crushing: The materials clamped between the working surfaces, such as simply supported beams or multi-supported beams subjected to concentrated forces, are mainly subjected to bending stress, but are subject to splitting at the contact point of the working surface.

Compression and shearing: a combination of squeezing and shearing.

Impact crushing: Impact crushing includes the impact of the high-speed moving crusher on the material to be crushed, the impact of the high-speed moving material on the fixed wall, and the mutual impact of the moving materials.

Analysis of crushing method of different stone crushers

Crushers can be divided into three categories according to the particle size of feed and products:

Coarse crusher: crushing from 1500 ~ 500mm to 350 ~ 100mm;

Medium crusher: crushing from 350 ~ 100mm to 100 ~ 40mm;

Fine crusher: crushing from 100 ~ 40mm to 30 ~ 10mm.

According to different working principles and structural features, rock crushers can be divided into:jaw crusher, cone crusher, gyratory crusher, impact crusher, sand making machine, hammer crusher, roller crusher.

1. Jaw Crusher

The working mode of the jaw crusher is intermittent, and the rock material is crushed by squeezing the rock by the fixed jaw and the movable jaw. Some time ago, a friend left a message to consult the single pendulum jaw crusher. In fact, it is rarely used now, and the compound pendulum jaw crusher is mainly used.

jaw crusher working principle

Application: It is suitable for a wide range of materials, both soft and hard, especially the coarse and medium crushing of hard stones.

Advantages: simple structure, reliable work, lighter weight, cheap price, small size, low configuration height, large feed opening size, easy adjustment of the discharge opening opening, simple maintenance, and economical operating costs.

Disadvantages: The liner is easy to wear, and the content of needle flakes in the product is high, and feeding equipment is generally required.

2. Cone Crusher

The work of the cone crusher is continuous, using the eccentric movement of the moving cone to crush the stone. At the same time, due to the tangential movement of the moving cone and the fixed cone, the stone will also be subjected to shearing and grinding. Therefore, its working mechanism It is a combination of extrusion, shearing, and milling methods.

cone crusher working principle

Application: Mainly used for medium or fine crushing of various stone materials. At the same time, according to its different structure (suspended shaft type and supporting shaft type), it can also be used for coarse stone crushing (suspended shaft type is used less).

Advantages: large crushing ratio, high efficiency, low energy consumption, less dust, uniform product size, stable operation, low failure rate, and not easy to be crushed.

Disadvantages: The structure and maintenance are more complicated, the body is high, and the price is expensive.

3. Impact Crusher

Impact crusher is a machine that uses impact energy to crush materials. Adjusting the gap between the counterattack frame and the rotor can achieve the purpose of changing the size and shape of the material discharged.

impact crusher working principle

Application: Mainly used for medium crushing and fine crushing of stones below medium hardness, and the shape of the crushed stones is better.

Advantages: small size, simple structure, uniform product size, selective stone crushing, and high output.

Disadvantages: The blow hammer and the counterattack plate are particularly easy to wear, especially for crushing hard rocks, which are more severely worn and need to be replaced frequently; it is not suitable to crush plastic and viscous materials.

4. Gyratory Crusher

The gyratory crusher is continuous crushing, adopting the principle of inter-material lamination crushing, and the crushing process is continuously carried out along the circular crushing cavity.

gyratory  crusher working principle

Application: Mainly used in the first stage to coarsely crush materials of various hardness, but not suitable for crushing viscous ores.

Advantages: large crushing ratio, high productivity, can be packed into the ore, can be directly fed without a feeder.

Disadvantages: complex structure, high fuselage, large volume, high plant building, large investment in infrastructure construction, heavy machinery, inconvenient handling, and high price.

5. Sand Making Machine

The work of the impact sand making machine is continuous. It uses high-speed moving materials to strike iron, strike each other and friction between the materials to break. There are two crushing methods: "stone-on-rock" and "stone-on-iron".

sand making machine working principle

Application: "Stone-on-Stone" is suitable for abrasive materials with medium-hardness and above. The finished product has a better grain shape and a little more powder content; "Stone-on-Iron" is suitable for materials with low abrasiveness and lower than medium-hardness, with high crushing efficiency. The wear cost of the guard plate is higher, and the finished grain is slightly worse.

Advantages: low energy consumption, high output, large crushing ratio, small size of the equipment, easy operation, convenient installation and maintenance, with shaping function, cubic product, high bulk density, and the machine's counterattack plate wears very much during operation Less.

Disadvantages: The maintenance is complicated and the cost is high. Generally, the maximum feed size does not exceed 60mm, which is suitable for fine crushing and sand making.

6. Hammer Crusher

The hammer crusher works continuously. The hammer on the high-speed rotating rotor is used to break the stone.

hammer crusher working principle

Application: it is suitable for medium and fine crushing of medium and low hardness and non abrasive stones (compressive strength less than 100MPa). It can also be used for sand making when there are grate bars, but it has been rarely used.

Advantages: large crushing ratio, high output and more fine materials.

Disadvantages: the hammer head wears fast, needs to be replaced frequently, raises dust during work, and viscous materials with raw material moisture content greater than 12% cannot pass through effectively.

7. Roller Crusher

The work of the roller crusher is continuous. The stone is located between two parallel cylindrical rollers that move toward each other. The friction force between the stone and the roller bites the stone into the roller, facing the stone of the smooth roller. After being squeezed, the stones on the toothed roller are split and squeezed and broken.

roller crusher working principle

Application: Mainly used for medium crushing and fine crushing of medium hardness stones (compressive strength below 100MPa) such as coal and limestone. Roll crusher is not used in road gravel processing.

Advantages: simple, compact structure, low investment, convenient adjustment, and can be used to crush viscous materials.

Disadvantages: low production efficiency, unable to crush hard materials.

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